The reception of the agreement in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile, and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May has received a motion of no confidence within her own party, but the EU has refused to accept further changes. Before the withdrawal, a withdrawal agreement was negotiated to ensure that the main political and economic relations between the EU and the UK were not separated overnight. The agreement has been in force since 1 February 2020, when the UK left the EU. It provides for a transition period until 31 December 2020, during which time EU legislation will continue to apply to the UK and the UK will continue to be part of the EU internal market and the EU customs union. During this transition period, the EU and the UK are negotiating their future relations. The political declaration on future relations, adopted by both sides, accompanies the withdrawal agreement and sets the framework for the negotiations. The material conditions of residence are and will remain the same as those provided by the current European legislation on the free movement of persons. The withdrawal agreement is complemented by the political declaration setting the framework for future relations between the European Union and the statement of Her Majesty`s Government of the United Kingdom of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on the application of the “Democratic Approval in Northern Ireland” provision of the Protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland. The aim of the political declaration is to define “the parameters of an ambitious, broad, thorough and flexible partnership on trade and economic cooperation, with a comprehensive and balanced free trade agreement on the merits.” It sets the tone and provides the framework for detailed and complex negotiations which, after the UK and the EU, aim to reach agreement on a free trade agreement. On 13 November 2018, the EU decided that “decisive progress” had been made in the Brexit negotiations, and on 14 November the European Commission and the UK Government published a draft withdrawal agreement as well as three protocols (on the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland, the SOVEREIGN territories of the United Kingdom in Cyprus and Gibraltar) and nine annexes.
The text of the negotiated withdrawal agreement and the political declaration on the framework for future EU-UK relations were approved by EU heads of state and government at a specially convened European Council on 25 November 2018. After the WAB becomes law, the withdrawal agreement must also be ratified by the European Parliament. The UK will be able to enter into trade agreements with third countries; However, the customs union would significantly reduce the UK`s ability to have very different trade relations with them, particularly with regard to products. There would be more opportunities for the UK to offer different conditions for trade in services and sectors such as public procurement. If the withdrawal agreement is approved, an EU law (withdrawal agreement) will be introduced to implement the withdrawal agreement in UK law. In addition to the library`s briefing paper, the manual for judicious voting, this document contains an updated report on national constitutional requirements for ratification of the withdrawal agreement. The withdrawal agreement provided for an extension of the transition period to avoid the “non-deal” of Brexit if no agreement between the EU and the UK could be reached by 31 December 2020.