The main problem continues to worsen, as more and more fishermen settle in the Sri Lankan maritime area due to illegal poaching. In 2010, the Sri Lankan government issued a communication to the Tamil Nadu government in which it stated that the Indian court could not annul the 1974 agreement.  The sanctuary of Saint Anthony is the only building on the island. It is a church that bears the name of St. Anthony, considered by Christians as the patron saint of navigators. It was built by a wealthy Indian, an Indian Catholic (Tamil) fisherman Srinivasa Padaiyachi in the early 20th century. The annual church feast lasts three days. Priests from India and Sri Lanka lead the Mass and the automobile procession. Pilgrims from India are mainly transported by Rameswaram. Under the agreement between the Indian and Sri Lankan governments, Indian citizens do not need to possess a Sri Lankan passport or visa to visit Kaschatheevu.
The island lacks drinking water. Although ceded to Sri Lanka, the agreement, which set no fishing rights, allowed Indian fishermen to fish near Katchatheevu and dry their nets on the island. Ownership of the island was the subject of controversy until 1974, as the island was managed by both countries during British rule. India has recognized Sri Lankan equality. The legality of the transfer was challenged before the Indian Supreme Court, as the recognition had not been ratified by the Indian Parliament. This recognition of a culturally important island for fishermen in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu has provoked some agitation from Tamil politicians in Nadu that it should be claimed over Indian sovereignty. The island is also important for the fishing areas used by fishermen from both countries. The Indo-Sri Lankan agreement allows Indian fishermen to fish around Katchatheevu and dry their nets on the island. In the context of the Sri Lankan civil war, the agreement gave rise to many difficulties with the Sri Lankan Navy, which was used to prevent the smuggling of weapons by the LTTE rebel group. The island has a Catholic shrine that attracted supporters from both countries.  During the state of emergency, when the Tamil Nadu government was dismissed in 1976 without consulting the State Assembly and Parliament, another agreement was reached to establish the border in the Gulf of Mannar and the Bay of Bengal and prevent fishermen from both countries from fishing in the waters of the other. In June 2011, the new government of Tamil Nadu, led by the Prime Minister of Tamil Nadu, J.
Jayalalithaa, received a petition to the Supreme Court for the declaration of the 1974 and 1976 agreements between India and Sri Lanka on the resignation of Katchatheevu in Sri Lanka to be unconstitutional.  In Berubari, the Tribunal decided that the transfer of Indian territory to another country must be ratified by Parliament through a constitutional amendment. On Monday, the court gave Mr. Karunanidhi four weeks to present his counter-response; But he responded within a day of the hearing. He prayed that the island would be recalled and that the agreement would be cancelled….